Home Digital MarketingE-Commerce Optimising E-Commerce Inventory Management

Optimising E-Commerce Inventory Management

by Marcin Wieclaw
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inventory management in e commerce

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, there has been a significant increase in online shopping, resulting in tremendous eCommerce growth. With this worldwide migration to online business comes a myriad of chances for businesses to broaden their reach and target new clients. However, in such a competitive environment, effective inventory management is crucial. This article will explore 7 tips to optimize inventory management in eCommerce, including choosing the right inventory management technique, forecasting demand, implementing a scanning system, and more.

Choosing the Right Inventory Management Technique for Your Business

When it comes to efficient inventory management, businesses have a range of techniques to choose from to suit their specific needs. In this section, we will explore some of the most popular inventory management techniques, including just-in-time inventory management, first-in, first-out inventory management, drop-shipping, and 3PL fulfillment.

Just-in-Time Inventory Management

Just-in-time inventory management is a technique that involves stocking products only when a customer places an order. This approach minimizes inventory levels and reduces storage costs, as products are acquired and stocked just in time to meet demand. By implementing just-in-time inventory management, businesses can optimize their inventory levels and ensure they have the right quantity of products available at all times.

First-In, First-Out Inventory Management

First-in, first-out (FIFO) inventory management is commonly used in industries with perishable or time-sensitive products, such as the food service industry. With FIFO, the oldest inventory is sold first, ensuring that products do not expire or become obsolete. By following this inventory management technique, businesses can minimize wastage and maintain product freshness.


Drop-shipping is a popular inventory management technique that eliminates the need for businesses to maintain their own inventory. Instead, when a customer places an order, the business forwards the order to the manufacturer or supplier, who then ships the product directly to the customer. This technique reduces upfront costs and eliminates the need for storage space, making it especially beneficial for small businesses and startups.

3PL Fulfillment

Third-party logistics (3PL) fulfillment involves outsourcing the logistics and fulfillment process to a specialized provider. These providers manage storage, packaging, shipping, and delivery on behalf of the business. By partnering with a 3PL provider, businesses can streamline their operations, reduce costs, and improve overall efficiency.

Each inventory management technique has its own advantages and considerations. Businesses should carefully evaluate their specific requirements, such as product nature, customer demand patterns, and budget, to select the most appropriate technique. Choosing the right inventory management technique is essential for ensuring smooth operations and maximizing profitability.

Forecasting Demand by Diving Into Historical Data

To effectively optimize inventory management, businesses should utilize predictive analytics and analyze historical data to forecast demand. By understanding sales cycles, historical demand patterns, and lead times, businesses can make informed decisions about their inventory requirements. Accurate demand forecasting is essential for maintaining the right level of stock and avoiding stockouts or overstocks.

Predictive analytics is a powerful tool that allows businesses to analyze historical data and identify patterns and trends. By leveraging historical data, businesses can gain insights into consumer behavior, seasonal fluctuations, and market trends. This information can then be used to create demand forecasts, which serve as a basis for inventory planning and optimization.

The process of demand forecasting typically involves examining historical sales data over a specific period, such as months or years, and using statistical models and algorithms to predict future demand. These models take into account factors such as seasonality, trends, promotional activities, and external influences to generate accurate forecasts.

The Benefits of Demand Forecasting

Demand forecasting offers several benefits for businesses in optimizing inventory management:

  1. Effective decision-making: By leveraging historical data and predictive analytics, businesses can make data-driven decisions regarding stock replenishment, production planning, and supply chain management. This helps businesses avoid stockouts, improve customer satisfaction, and reduce holding costs.
  2. Inventory optimization: Accurate demand forecasting allows businesses to maintain optimal inventory levels. By understanding demand patterns, businesses can ensure that they have enough stock to meet customer demand without carrying excessive inventory. This helps businesses reduce inventory holding costs, minimize the risk of obsolescence, and optimize cash flow.
  3. Improved customer service: Demand forecasting enables businesses to meet customer demand more effectively. By having the right products in stock at the right time, businesses can avoid stockouts and backorders, leading to improved customer satisfaction and loyalty.

By incorporating demand forecasting into their inventory management processes, businesses can gain a competitive edge in the e-commerce industry. With accurate demand forecasts, businesses can optimize their inventory levels, improve customer service, and drive operational efficiency.

Challenges of Demand Forecasting
1. Data quality: The accuracy of demand forecasts relies heavily on the quality and completeness of historical data. Inaccurate or incomplete data can lead to incorrect forecasts and poor inventory management decisions.
2. External factors: Demand forecasting is influenced by various external factors such as weather conditions, economic changes, and market trends. Incorporating these factors into forecasting models can be challenging but is crucial for accurate predictions.
3. Seasonality: Many businesses experience seasonal fluctuations in demand, making it essential to account for seasonality when creating demand forecasts. Failure to do so can result in inventory imbalances and missed sales opportunities.
4. Demand volatility: Some products may experience unpredictable demand fluctuations, making it challenging to forecast accurately. This volatility can be caused by factors such as changing consumer preferences or unexpected events.

Despite these challenges, businesses that invest in demand forecasting and effectively utilize historical data and predictive analytics can significantly improve their inventory management practices.

Implementing a Scanning System for Accurate Inventory Tracking

Implementing a scanning system for inventory management is highly recommended to eliminate human errors and ensure precise inventory tracking. By scanning products at every stage, from receiving to moving and shipping, businesses can significantly reduce inaccuracies and minimize the occurrence of mistyped SKU numbers. Automation through scanning systems offers real-time inventory tracking, which allows businesses to have accurate visibility into their inventory levels and make better-informed decisions. The scanning system ensures that all inventory-related activities are accurately recorded, minimizing the risk of stockouts and delays in fulfillment.

One of the primary advantages of implementing a scanning system is the automation it brings to the inventory management process. Gone are the days of manual data entry and the potential for human errors. With a scanning system in place, inventory-related tasks are streamlined and expedited. The manual processes that were once prone to errors, such as data entry or counting items, are replaced with automated scanning, reducing the risk of discrepancies and improving overall inventory accuracy. This automation also saves valuable time and resources, allowing businesses to focus on other crucial aspects of their operations.

Inventory accuracy is vital for both customer satisfaction and operational efficiency. Inaccurate inventory records can lead to missed sales opportunities, stockouts, and increased carrying costs. A scanning system ensures that accurate inventory data is readily available, enabling businesses to fulfill customer orders promptly and efficiently. By having real-time visibility into inventory levels, businesses can optimize their inventory replenishment strategies, reducing excess stock and improving cash flow.

Furthermore, a scanning system enables businesses to implement cycle counting, a method of regularly auditing a portion of the inventory. This approach helps identify and correct any discrepancies or inaccuracies in the inventory records, ensuring ongoing inventory accuracy. Cycle counting allows businesses to proactively address any issues and maintain accurate stock levels without the need for time-consuming and disruptive full physical inventories.

In summary, implementing a scanning system for inventory management is a strategic decision that can greatly enhance accuracy, efficiency, and overall inventory control. By automating inventory tracking and eliminating human errors, businesses can have real-time visibility into their inventory levels, reduce stockouts and delays in fulfillment, and ultimately improve customer satisfaction. The use of scanning systems is a vital component of modern inventory management in the eCommerce era, helping businesses stay competitive in a fast-paced and rapidly growing market.

scanning system

Benefits of Implementing a Scanning System:

  • Eliminates human errors in inventory tracking
  • Provides real-time visibility into inventory levels
  • Improves overall inventory accuracy
  • Optimizes inventory replenishment strategies
  • Enables regular cycle counting for ongoing accuracy

Setting Minimum Available Stock Levels for Effective Inventory Control

Establishing par levels, which ensure a minimum amount of stock at all times, is crucial for effective inventory control. By setting par levels based on demand patterns and manufacturing schedules, businesses can optimize stock control and inventory optimization. Par levels vary for different products and are determined by considering factors such as lead time and demand curves.

Setting par levels involves calculating the minimum sustainable stock required to avoid stockouts and maintain smooth operations. This helps businesses meet customer demands without overstocking, reducing costs and improving customer satisfaction. By maintaining sufficient stock levels, businesses ensure product availability and avoid disruptions in the supply chain.

Benefits of Setting Par Levels:

  • Improved Efficiency: By establishing par levels, businesses can streamline their stock control processes. Knowing the minimum stock required allows for efficient planning and allocation of resources, reducing waste and avoiding excessive inventory levels.
  • Enhanced Inventory Optimization: Setting par levels helps businesses optimize their inventory investment by aligning stock levels with demand. It ensures that inventory levels are always at an optimal level, reducing the risk of stockouts while minimizing carrying costs.
  • Accurate Demand Planning: By analyzing demand patterns and historical data, businesses can set par levels that align with customer requirements. This allows for accurate demand planning, ensuring that the right products are available at the right time, avoiding lost sales opportunities.

Effective stock control is essential in managing inventory optimization. Business owners and managers must carefully assess demand patterns, lead times, and other factors to determine the appropriate par levels. Maintaining the minimum recommended stock levels helps businesses operate efficiently, meet customer demands, and maximize profitability.

Example Par Levels Table:

Product Lead Time (days) Daily Demand Par Level
Product A 5 20 100
Product B 3 10 50
Product C 7 15 75

In this example, the par levels are set based on the lead time and daily demand for each product. By maintaining the par levels specified in the table, businesses can ensure sufficient stock availability to meet customer demands while avoiding excessive inventory.

Categorizing Inventory with ABC Analysis for Customized Restocking Plans

Categorizing inventory is a valuable strategy for businesses seeking to optimize their restocking plans. The ABC analysis technique allows businesses to group items based on their value and contribution to revenue, enabling them to prioritize and allocate resources accordingly. By categorizing inventory, businesses can focus on items that have a higher impact on revenue and require specific fulfillment approaches, ultimately leading to increased efficiency and improved inventory management.

ABC analysis involves classifying inventory into three categories: A, B, and C. Each category represents a different value and quantity profile:

  1. Category A: This category includes high-value but low-quantity items. These are typically your top-selling products that generate a significant portion of your revenue. Examples may include luxury goods or high-demand electronics.
  2. Category B: Category B comprises moderately priced and moderate-quantity goods. These items have a moderate impact on revenue and represent a balance between value and quantity. Examples may include popular clothing brands or household appliances.
  3. Category C: This category consists of low-value but high-quantity items. While these items may not individually contribute significantly to revenue, they collectively account for a large portion of inventory. Examples may include low-priced consumables or basic office supplies.

By categorizing inventory using ABC analysis, businesses gain valuable insights into the varying levels of importance and demand for their products. This categorization enables businesses to tailor their restocking plans based on individual item needs, ensuring efficient inventory management and avoidance of stockouts or overstocks.

For example, businesses might prioritize restocking Category A items more frequently to meet high demand and maintain healthy inventory levels. Category B items, while not as high-priority as Category A, still require regular restocking attention to ensure availability for customers. Category C items, due to their lower value and high quantity, may have less frequent restocking needs.

Category Value Quantity Restocking Frequency
Category A High Low Frequent
Category B Moderate Moderate Regular
Category C Low High Less frequent

By customizing restocking plans based on ABC analysis, businesses can ensure that the most critical items are always available to meet customer demand while effectively managing inventory costs and minimizing the risk of stockouts or overstocks.

ABC Analysis

Continuous Audit of the Supply Chain for Improved Efficiency

Regularly auditing the supply chain is vital for identifying potential areas of improvement and ensuring efficient operations. By mapping out all components of the supply chain, businesses can gain a comprehensive understanding of their processes, assess the contributions of each element, and compare lead times and costs with competitors. This thorough audit enables businesses to identify any faulty links or areas for optimization, preventing supply problems and facilitating effective inventory management efforts.


Optimizing inventory management in eCommerce is of utmost importance for businesses seeking to thrive in a highly competitive online marketplace. By employing the right inventory management technique, accurately forecasting demand, implementing a scanning system for precise inventory tracking, setting minimum stock levels, categorizing inventory for customized restocking plans, and continuously auditing the supply chain, businesses can enhance efficiency, reduce costs, and ultimately improve customer satisfaction. Effective inventory management serves as a critical factor in achieving success in the fast-paced eCommerce industry.

Choosing the appropriate inventory management technique, such as just-in-time inventory management or drop-shipping, can lead to lower storage costs and improved order fulfillment. Forecasting demand through the analysis of historical data enables businesses to maintain optimal inventory levels, avoiding stockouts or overstocks.

Implementing a scanning system allows for real-time inventory tracking, minimizing errors and ensuring accurate stock control. By setting minimum stock levels and categorizing inventory through ABC analysis, businesses can prioritize their restocking efforts and allocate resources efficiently. Continuously auditing the supply chain helps identify areas for improvement, leading to enhanced operational efficiency and reduced supply problems.


What are the different inventory management techniques available for businesses in eCommerce?

Businesses in eCommerce can choose from various inventory management techniques, including just-in-time inventory management, first-in, first-out inventory management, drop-shipping, and 3PL fulfillment.

What is just-in-time inventory management?

Just-in-time inventory management involves stocking a product each time a customer requests it, leading to lower inventory levels and reduced storage costs.

How does first-in, first-out inventory management work?

First-in, first-out inventory management dispatches items in the order they were received and is often used in the food service industry.

What is drop-shipping?

Drop-shipping eliminates the need for a warehouse by fulfilling orders directly from the manufacturer.

What is 3PL fulfillment?

3PL fulfillment involves outsourcing logistics to a third-party provider.

How can businesses forecast demand for effective inventory management?

To forecast demand, businesses should utilize predictive analytics and analyze historical data, including sales cycles, historical demand patterns, and lead times.

Why is implementing a scanning system recommended for inventory management?

Implementing a scanning system helps eliminate human errors and ensures accurate inventory tracking. Scanning products at every stage enables real-time tracking and reduces the risk of stockouts and fulfillment delays.

How can setting minimum stock levels help with inventory control?

Setting minimum stock levels, also known as par levels, ensures a minimum amount of stock at all times. It is based on demand patterns and manufacturing schedules, helping businesses avoid stockouts and maintain smooth operations.

What is ABC analysis and how can it help with inventory management?

ABC analysis involves categorizing inventory based on its value and contribution to revenue. This helps businesses create customized restocking plans, focusing on items that have a higher impact on revenue and require specific fulfillment approaches.

Why is it important to regularly audit the supply chain for inventory management?

Regularly auditing the supply chain allows businesses to identify possible improvements and ensure efficient operations. It helps identify any faulty links or areas for optimization, preventing supply problems and facilitating inventory management efforts.

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